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French beans, also known as green beans or snap beans, are a popular and versatile vegetable. They are tender, flavorful, and can be enjoyed cooked or raw in various dishes.
Botanical name: Phaseolus vulgaris
Plant morphology: French beans are annual plants that grow as bushy or climbing vines. The leaves are green and oval-shaped, with a smooth texture. The beans grow in pods that are long, slender, and green, with a crunchy texture when cooked. The flowers can be white, pink, purple, or red, depending on the variety.
Soil and climatic requirements: French beans prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They grow best in loamy soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The ideal temperature range for French beans is between 10°C and 35°C, and they require full sun exposure.
Crop duration: 60-75 days
Cropping season: French beans are warm-season crops and can be grown during spring, summer, or early autumn, depending on the climate.
Planting type: Direct sowing or transplanting.
Spacing: Plant French bean seeds or seedlings about 10-15 cm apart in rows spaced 45-60 cm apart.
Depth of sowing: Sow the seeds about 2-3 cm deep in the soil.
Germination period: French bean seeds germinate within 3-5 days under favorable conditions.
Hours of sunlight required: French beans require full sun exposure, ideally 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day.
Watering: French beans need regular watering to keep the soil consistently moist, especially during dry periods. Avoid overwatering, as it can lead to root rot.
Harvesting: French beans can be harvested when the pods are still young and tender, usually about 2-3 weeks after flowering. The pods should be firm and crisp. Harvest regularly to encourage continuous production.
Companion crops: French beans grow well with crops such as carrots, cucumbers, radishes, and lettuce.
Problems of French bean cultivation:
Pests: Aphids, bean beetles, leaf miners, and spider mites can infest French bean plants.
Diseases: Powdery mildew, bacterial blight, and bean rust are common diseases that can affect French beans. Proper spacing, good air circulation, and disease-resistant varieties can help prevent these issues.