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Capsicum, also known as bell pepper or sweet pepper, is a popular vegetable that comes in a variety of colors such as red, green, yellow, and orange. It is low in calories and high in nutrients, making it a great addition to a healthy diet. Capsicum is rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, and fiber, and also contains antioxidants that help protect the body against damage from harmful free radicals.
Botanical name: Capsicum annuum
Plant morphology: Capsicum is a perennial plant that is typically grown as an annual. It has a bushy habit and grows up to 3-4 feet tall. The leaves are dark green and glossy, and the flowers are small and white. The fruit of the capsicum plant is a hollow, bell-shaped or blocky structure, which can vary in size depending on the variety.
Common names: Bell pepper, sweet pepper
Soil and climatic requirement: Capsicum grows best in well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. The ideal pH range is between 5.8 and 6.5. Capsicum requires a warm and sunny climate to grow, and is sensitive to frost. The ideal temperature range for growth is between 20°C and 30°C.
Crop duration: 80-100 days
Cropping season: Capsicum can be grown year-round in tropical areas, but is typically grown as a summer crop in temperate regions.
Planting type: Capsicum can be grown from seeds or seedlings. Seedlings should be transplanted to the main field after 4-6 weeks.
Spacing: Spacing for capsicum plants varies depending on the variety, but typically ranges from 45-60 cm between plants and 60-90 cm between rows.
Depth of sowing: Capsicum seeds should be sown at a depth of 1-2 cm.
Germination period: 8-25 days
Hours of sunlight required: Capsicum plants require full sun exposure for optimal growth and fruit production.
Watering: Capsicum requires regular watering, especially during dry spells. Water deeply once or twice a week, rather than shallowly every day.
Companion crops: Capsicum can be grown alongside crops such as beans, peas, and tomatoes.
Seed treatment: Capsicum seeds do not require any special treatment before sowing.
Harvesting: Capsicum fruits are ready for harvest when they are fully mature and have reached the desired color. The fruits should be harvested using a sharp knife or pruning shears to avoid damaging the plant.
Problems of capsicum cultivation:
Pests: Aphids, whiteflies, thrips, mites, and caterpillars.
Diseases: Bacterial wilt, blossom end rot, powdery mildew, and verticillium wilt.